Death of Jesus: Sacrifice vs. Execution

Savoldo,_crocifissioneThis year I have had the opportunity to discuss the Catholic Church’s teaching regarding the death penalty on a few different occasions. For those who are not familiar with the Church’s teaching on this matter, the Catechism of the Catholic Church 2263-2267 provides a helpful summery.

During each discussion with different groups of people, the same comment always came up: “Without the death penalty, we would not be saved.” The implication behind this comment is that the crucifixion of Jesus, an example of the Roman death penalty, was pivotal to humanity’s salvation. I have no quarrels that death of Jesus brought about our salvation, but this remark reduces his crucifixion to a mere execution. This presents a major problem.

Although the death of Jesus took the form of a Roman crucifixion and looked like a common execution to bystanders, the New Testament goes to great lengths to explain that Jesus freely gave his life out of obedience to the Father.[1] This distinction is so important that Jesus clearly spells it out to his disciples in John 10:17-18,

For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have the power to lay it down, and I have the power to take it again; this charge I have received from my Father. (RSV)

Even though it appeared that the Roman judicial system had control over the life and death of Jesus, the Gospel of John gives us a different view. (continue reading…)

The Miracle of Sharing? (Jn 6:5-15)

Several months ago, I attended the Northwest Regional Catholic Stewardship Conference in Vancouver, WA. The purpose of the conference was to teach parish ministers effective techniques to develop a healthy atmosphere of stewardship in their local communities. For the most part, the conference succeeded in its goal by offering great pastoral advice and practical strategies. However, in an attempt to make a relevant connection between the life of Jesus and the Christian vocation of being good stewards, the first keynote speaker made a grave error in her interpretation of Jn 6:5-15. Here is the biblical text:

Lifting up his eyes, then, and seeing that a multitude was coming to him, Jesus said to Philip, “How are we to buy bread, so that these people may eat?” This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered him, “Two hundred denarii would not buy enough bread for each of them to get a little.” One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, “There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two fish; but what are they among so many?” Jesus said, “Make the people sit down.” Now there was much grass in the place; so the men sat down, in number about five thousand. Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated; so also the fish, as much as they wanted. And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, “Gather up the fragments left over, that nothing may be lost.” So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with fragments from the five barley loaves, left by those who had eaten. When the people saw the sign which he had done, they said, “This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world!” Perceiving then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the hills by himself. (RSV)

After referencing this passage, the keynote speaker made a comment I did not expect to hear in that particular setting. To the best of my memory and paraphrasing ability, she said,

“Can you imagine Jesus miraculously dividing five loaves and two fish in order to feed five thousand people? What would that look like? Are we supposed to imagine that he kept pulling loaves and fish out of a bag? No, the narrative is not saying that Jesus miraculously produced more bread and fish. What really happened is Jesus encouraged everyone to share and be stewards to each other. In the end, once everyone had shared, there was a surplus remaining.”

This was not the first time that I have heard this claim. In fact, this is a fairly common interpretation resulting from a larger hermeneutical view that believes anything “miraculous” must have a non-supernatural explanation. With this post, I would simply like to offer a response to this particular interpretation of Jn 6:5-15 to demonstrate that natural explanations of the miraculous, which claim to be more reasonable and easier to accept than adhering to supernatural causes, often create severe difficulties in explaining the biblical text. (continue reading…)